||Last Updated: Nov 17th, 2006 - 22:35:04
How West Nile virus evades immune defenses
West Nile virus evades the body's immune defenses by blocking immune signaling by a protein receptor, a finding that could pave the way for a vaccine to protect against North American strains of the virus, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report.
Oct 5, 2006, 01:05
Innovative method for creating a human cytomegalovirus vaccine outlined
Each year, about 40,000 children are born infected with human cytomegalovirus, or CMV, and about 8,000 of these children suffer permanent disabilities due to the virus – almost one an hour. These disabilities can include hearing loss, vision loss, mental disability, a lack of coordination, and seizures. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CMV is as common a cause of serious disability as Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, or neural tube defects.
Aug 2, 2006, 11:43
Cracking Virus Protection Shield
Ebola, measles and rabies are serious threats to public health in developing countries. Despite different symptoms all of the diseases are caused by the same class of viruses that unlike most other living beings carry their genetic information on a single RNA molecule instead of a double strand of DNA. Now researchers from the Institut de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale [IVMS] and the Outstation of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory [EMBL] in Grenoble have obtained a detailed structural picture of a protein that allows the rabies virus to withstand the human immune response and survive and replicate in our cells. The study that is published in this week's online edition of Science suggests new potential drug targets in rabies and sheds light on how similar approaches can help fighting other viral diseases.
Jun 19, 2006, 02:18
Viruses trade-off between survival and reproduction
Living is an energy-intensive exercise that inevitably involves trade-offs. As many a mother may tell you, expending the energy necessary to raise a clutch of kids can shave years off one's life. Trade-offs between reproductive success and survival have been demonstrated for a wide variety of organisms and, in keeping with life history theory, should arise in any organism striving to maximize fitness under the constraints of finite resources.
Jun 15, 2006, 12:09
New hybrid virus provides targeted molecular imaging of cancer
Researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have created a new class of hybrid virus and demonstrated its ability to find, highlight, and deliver genes to tumors in mice. Researchers say the advance, reported in the journal Cell, is potentially an important step in making human cancer both more visible and accessible to treatment; it may also allow prediction and monitoring of how specific anti-cancer agents are actually working.
Apr 22, 2006, 19:32
Mass spectrometry to detect norovirus particles
Scientists have used mass spectrometry for decades to determine the chemical composition of samples but rarely has it been used to identify viruses, and never in complex environmental samples. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health recently demonstrated that proteomic mass spectrometry has the potential to be applied for this purpose. Using a two-step process, researchers successfully separated, purified and concentrated a norovirus surrogate from a clinical sample within a few hours. Nanospray mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting norovirus particles in the purified concentrates.
Apr 10, 2006, 14:08
xCT molecule is a major gateway for KSHV to enter human cells
Researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have identified a critical human cell surface molecule involved in infection by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), the virus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma and certain forms of lymphoma. Kaposi's sarcoma is a major cancer associated with HIV/AIDS, and it typically manifests as multiple purple-hued skin lesions.
Apr 7, 2006, 13:56
Surprising discovery about the inner workings of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)
Biochemists at Wake Forest University School of Medicine have made a surprising discovery about the inner workings of a powerful virus – a discovery that they hope could one day lead to better vaccines or anti-virus medications.
Apr 7, 2006, 13:53
New human retrovirus - Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (XMRV)
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers and their colleagues have discovered a new retrovirus in humans that is closely related to a cancer-causing virus found in mice. Their findings describe the first documented cases of human infection with a retrovirus that is native to rodents.
Apr 1, 2006, 19:27
Viruses can be forced to evolve as better delivery vehicles for gene therapy
Viruses and humans have evolved together over millions of years in a game of one-upmanship that, often as not, left humans sick or worse. Now, a University of California, Berkeley, researcher has shown that viruses - in this case, a benign one - can be forced to evolve in ways to benefit humans. The adeno-associated virus, or AAV, is a common, though innocuous, resident of the body that has received a lot of attention in recent years as a possible carrier for genes in gene therapy. Because as many as 90 percent of people already have the virus, however, their immune systems are primed with antibodies to quickly tackle and neutralize it, thwarting any attempt at gene therapy.
Feb 8, 2006, 11:34
Epstein-Barr Virus Found in Breast Cancer Tissue May Impact Efficiency of Treatment
Epstein-Barr virus has been detected in breast cancer tissue and tumor cells and may impact the efficiency of chemotherapeutic drug treatment say researchers from France and Japan. They report their findings in the January 2006 issue of the Journal of Virology.
Jan 20, 2006, 14:01
Honeybees May Transmit Viruses to Their Offspring
Researchers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture report what may be the first evidence of queen honeybees transmitting viruses to their offspring. They report their findings in the January 2006 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
Jan 20, 2006, 13:56
Human Papillomavirus Could Spread Through Blood - Study
Potentially transmissible human papillomavirus DNA has been identified in human blood cells suggesting that the virus, traditionally thought to be sexually transmitted, could also be spread through blood products. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health report their findings in the November 2005 issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology.
Nov 17, 2005, 16:40
Gene Identified in Epstein-Barr Virus that May Contribute to Cancer
Researchers have identified a gene in the Epstein-Barr virus that may contribute to the development of lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in humans. Their findings appear in the November 2005 issue of the Journal of Virology.
Nov 17, 2005, 16:37
New Gene Identified for Antiviral Activity
Researchers have identified a gene in mice capable of producing an innate antiviral response to infection. Their findings appear in the November 2005 issue of the Journal of Virology.
Nov 17, 2005, 16:37
Secrets to monoclonal antibody's success against West Nile Virus
A monoclonal antibody that can effectively treat mice infected with West Nile virus has an intriguing secret: Contrary to scientists' expectations, it does not block the virus's ability to attach to host cells. Instead, the antibody somehow stops the infectious process at a later point.
Sep 29, 2005, 20:54
Flaviviruses use a novel mechanism to evade host defenses
Researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, have made the surprising discovery that flaviviruses, which cause such serious diseases as West Nile fever, yellow fever and forms of encephalitis, evade immune system defenses in different ways depending on whether they are transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. This finding could lead to new approaches to developing vaccines and treatments against these illnesses.
Sep 29, 2005, 06:24
Adenovirus may deliver bird flu vaccine
A harmless virus used as a delivery vehicle may help set a roadblock for a potentially catastrophic human outbreak of bird flu, according to researchers at Purdue University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Sep 14, 2005, 01:46
Coronavirus HCoV-NL63 associated strongly with croup
A forthcoming paper in the international, open-access journal PLoS Medicine makes the strongest association yet between a newly identified virus and the pediatric respiratory disease commonly known as croup. Following their recent description of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63, Lia van der Hoek and colleagues suggest this is one of the most frequently detected viruses in children with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). These infections are estimated by the World Health Organization to be responsible for one fifth of all deaths in children under five years old.
Aug 23, 2005, 21:07
New Test May Simultaneously Identify Herpesviruses, Enteroviruses, and Flaviviruses
Researchers from France may have developed a new method of simultaneously detecting viruses from three different families that cause diseases of the central nervous system in humans. Their findings appear in the August 2005 issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology.
Aug 18, 2005, 02:40
Research team isolates receptor for deadly viruses
A collaborative research team from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU), the Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have made a major breakthrough in efforts to combat two deadly viruses that could be engineered for use as bioweapons. The team isolated the functional receptor for the Nipah and Hendra viruses--naturally occurring and highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses for which no treatments or vaccines are currently available.
Jul 31, 2005, 14:13
Mechanism that lets herpes simplex virus infect is discovered
It's one of the most common viruses in America, and one that causes the most guilt and shame. It can get inside almost any kind of human cell, reproduce in vast numbers, and linger for years in the body, causing everything from recurrent genital blisters to sores around the mouth. Its complications can kill, and it may increase susceptibility to many nerve and brain disorders.
Jul 25, 2005, 16:12
Why 2003 Monkeypox outbreak in the US wasn't deadly
An outbreak of 72 cases of monkeypox in the United States during the summer of 2003 didn't produce a single fatality, even though the disease usually kills 10 percent of those infected.
Jul 16, 2005, 00:11
Biologists see combined structure of Coxsackievirus A21 and ICAM-1
Biologists at Purdue University have determined the combined structure of a common-cold virus attached to a molecule that enables the virus to infect its host, information that ultimately may help researchers develop methods for treating certain viral infections.
Jul 13, 2005, 12:30
How Nipah and Hendra viruses gain entry into cells
Working independently, two research teams funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have identified how Nipah and Hendra viruses, closely related viruses first identified in the mid-1990s, gain entry into human and animal cells.
Jul 7, 2005, 18:05
The Role of the Rab7 Protein
When Robert Hooke first looked at cork bark with a light microscope in 1655, he saw small empty chambers, reminiscent of monastery cells. We now know that living cells are full of organelles—specialized subcompartments surrounded by membranes in which different cellular life functions occur. This complex organization raises major transport and sorting problems similar to those encountered in a large city in which trains and trucks carrying different cargos arrive at peripheral distribution centers.
Jun 22, 2005, 13:05
Virus Uses Tiny RNA to Evade the Immune System
In the latest version of the hide-and-seek game between pathogens and the hosts they infect, researchers have found that a virus appears to cloak itself with a recently discovered gene silencing device to evade detection and destruction by immune cells.
Jun 3, 2005, 16:53
Virus Subverts Cellular Defense for Reproduction and Escape
Against the constant threat of infection by bacteria or viruses, one line of defense for the eukaryotic cell is the autophagosome. This double-membrane structure, which buds off from the endoplasmic reticulum, traps cytoplasmic intruders and, upon maturation, merges with a lysosome to destroy them. In this issue, however, Karla Kirkegaard and colleagues show that for one class of viruses, the autophagosome is not a holding cell but a breeding ground, and may even provide a novel escape route.
Apr 27, 2005, 02:27
Monoclonal antibody cures West Nile Virus
A newly developed monoclonal antibody can cure mice infected with the West Nile virus, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis report. If further studies confirm the effectiveness and safety of the antibody, it could become one of the first monoclonal antibodies used as a treatment for an infectious disease.
Apr 25, 2005, 19:59
Genomes Offer Ecological Clues to Viruses
Cyanobacteria have a long and checkered past. When their ancestors first appeared some 3 billion years ago, earth’s atmosphere likely contained mostly carbon dioxide, along with hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, nitrogen, and water vapor. Thought to be the first photosynthesizers, cyanobacteria forebears used water from their ocean habitat, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to make sugar, and produced oxygen as waste—the kiss of death for most ancient microorganisms, which eventually died from oxygen poisoning.
Apr 19, 2005, 17:12