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Latest Research : Biochemistry
  Last Updated: Nov 2, 2013 - 11:52:55 AM

Latest Research : Biochemistry
New regulatory pathway for cell division found
Johns Hopkins scientists reported in the January 12 edition of Science Signaling about the regulation of cell division by a process of sugar-based protein modification called O-GlcNAcylation. This system seems as influential and ubiquitous a cell-division signaling pathway as its phosphate counterpart.
Feb 6, 2010 - 1:16:12 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins
Scientists develop a general control switch for protein activity
Our bodies could not maintain their existence without thousands of proteins performing myriad vital tasks within cells. Since malfunctioning proteins can cause disease, the study of protein structure and function can lead to the development of drugs and treatments for numerous disorders. For example, the discovery of insulin's role in diabetes paved the way for the development of a treatment based on insulin injections. Yet, despite enormous research efforts led by scientists worldwide, the cellular function of numerous proteins is still unknown. To reveal this function, scientists perform various genetic manipulations to increase or, conversely, decrease the production of a certain protein, but existing manipulations of this sort are complicated and do not fully meet the researchers' needs.
Jun 20, 2007 - 8:00:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins
MITOMI Device Enables Huge Leaps in Mapping Protein Function
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have designed a laboratory about the size of a quarter that is capable of conducting thousands of experiments simultaneously to measure how specialized proteins bind their DNA targets. This tool provides a new way of measuring the activity and function of proteins. Having those measurements may help scientists predict the behavior of individual proteins in biological systems without making any direct measurements on model organisms.
Jan 11, 2007 - 1:06:24 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins
First major study of mammalian 'disorderly' proteins
Investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital turned up the heat on "disorderly" proteins and confirmed that most of these unruly molecules perform critical functions in the cell. The St. Jude team completed the first large-scale collection, investigation and classification of these so-called intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs), a large group of molecules that play vital roles in the daily activities of cells.
Oct 10, 2006 - 12:59:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry
Revolutionary New Tool to Watch Real-Time Chemical Activity in Cells
Attempts to identify potential drugs that interfere with the action of one particular enzyme linked to heart disease and similar health problems led scientists at Johns Hopkins to create a new tool and new experimental approach that allow them to see multiple, real-time chemical reactions in living cells.
Jul 22, 2006 - 7:22:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins
Exploring mechanics of chromatid cohesion
Over the long course of life's history, the appearance of a new function in an organism may be accompanied by a new protein. But, more often, the work is done by an old one that adds a new role to its repertoire. Such proteins are likely to be found in a wide variety of organisms, reflecting their ancient lineage and continuing relevance. Proteins never act in isolation, of course; instead, they bind to one or more others to carry out their tasks. And so, if one member of a protein pair has taken on a new function, it's a good bet the other may have done so as well. In a new study, Vlad Seitan, Tom Strachan, and colleagues show that two proteins, whose interactions in yeast help chromosomes divide, have counterparts in a full range of other organisms, including humans. And true to prediction, the proteins don't just continue to play their old roles—in animals, they also appear to help guide multicellular development.
Jul 5, 2006 - 2:53:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins
Shape of a Common Protein Module Munc-13 Suggests Role as Molecular Switch
A vital aspect of a neuron's job is deciding when to pass their cache of chemicals on to neighboring cells. To do this in a way that ensures effective communication, neurons must keep tight reins on their neurotransmitters—the chemical messengers they release to influence neighboring cells. Neurons quickly collect and then jettison these neurotransmitters, cycling through this process many times per second.
Jun 10, 2006 - 1:07:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry
MST-FOXO - Free radical cell death switch mechanism
Just as humans undergo daily stress, so do our individual cells. The cellular variety, called oxidative stress, is caused by the build-up of free radicals, which over time inflict damage linked to aging and age related diseases such as Alzheimer's. Researchers at Harvard Medical School (HMS) have now defined a molecular signaling pathway by which oxidative stress triggers cell death, a finding that could pave the way for new drug targets and diagnostic strategies for age-related diseases. The findings are reported in the June 2 issue of Cell.
Jun 8, 2006 - 2:44:00 AM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins
New process to inhibit zinc finger protein, HIV NCp7
Using small molecules containing platinum, Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center researchers have created a process to inhibit a class of proteins important in HIV and cancer.
May 31, 2006 - 5:10:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins
New methods of structural genomics have accelerated studies of individual proteins
Biologists have long been thwarted in determining the three-dimensional structure of proteins that carry out their jobs only after intimately embracing other proteins. Although the structures of these complexes could reveal a bounty of new details about how proteins function, this information has been slow in coming because the work is difficult and time consuming.
May 11, 2006 - 5:33:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry
Lethal Gene Mutation Key to Blocking Cholesterol Processing Uncovered
When Jefferson Medical College researcher Shiu-Ying Ho, Ph.D., and her colleagues first created a mutation that limited the absorption of lipids and cholesterol into the bloodstream in zebrafish, the possibilities seemed endless. The discovery boded well for new insights into mechanisms behind lipid and cholesterol processing, and in turn, the potential development of new cholesterol-controlling drugs.
Apr 20, 2006 - 4:01:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins : WNT
Wnt - One Signal, Multiple Pathways: Diversity Comes from the Receptor
Type “Wnt” into Google Scholar, and you'll get nearly 72,000 hits, revealing the pivotal role this widely conserved family of signaling proteins plays in development and disease. Wnt proteins trigger complex signaling cascades that regulate cell growth, migration, differentiation, and many other aspects of development with the help of numerous interacting components. In the best-understood, “canonical” pathway, Wnt signaling molecules (called ligands) bind simultaneously to two coreceptors on the cell surface (Frizzled and LRP), allowing β-catenin proteins to stabilize (avoid destruction), enter the nucleus, associate with the transcription factor complex TCF/LEF, and activate genes involved in cell survival, proliferation, or differentiation. Inappropriate activation of β-catenin has been linked to several types of cancer.
Apr 5, 2006 - 6:48:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins : WNT
Prostate cancer manipulates Wnts signaling proteins in bony metastasis
Prostate cancer is a cruel disease. Left untreated, prostate cancer cells often metastasize, or spread, to bone where they form fracture-prone tumors that are extremely painful.
Sep 6, 2005 - 8:40:00 PM

Latest Research : Biochemistry : Proteins : WNT
Ryk, Wnts and Frizzled3 receptors in neuronal regeneration - Study
The same family of chemical signals that attracts developing sensory nerves up the spinal cord toward the brain serves to repel motor nerves, sending them in the opposite direction, down the cord and away from the brain, report researchers at the University of Chicago in the September 2005 issue of Nature Neuroscience (available online August 14). The finding may help physicians restore function to people with paralyzing spinal cord injuries.
Aug 15, 2005 - 8:49:00 PM

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